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A dataset on coca bush, opium poppy, and cannabis cultivation locations throughout the world



All documents:   DRUGDATA (zip)

Documentation: Coca Bush, Opium Poppy, and Cannabis (pdf)

Code sheet:        DRUGDATA Code Sheet (pdf)


The drug cultivation dataset contains information on coca bush, opium poppy, and cannabis cultivation throughout the world.

Given that drug cultivation covers larger areas the cultivation areas are presented as polygons. The data are stored in shapefile (GIS) format. Three data files are included: one for each of the drug plants.

In addition to the locational information, the shapefiles include information on when commercial, large-scale production in the region started and whether there has been traditional production for local use prior the more intensive cultivation. See the Code sheet for further details.

The file for cannabis cultivation includes only the largest producers for non-domestic markets.

The dataset is accompanied by the document ‘Coca Bush, Opium Poppy, and Cannabis’ that offer a more detailed overview of the three cultivated drug plants. It presents shortly the growing conditions that these plants require as well as listing the major producers and production areas. It also documents the information included in DRUGDATA and provides the references used for DRUGDATA.


Please site following article when using the data:

Buhaug, Halvard & Päivi Lujala 2005. Accounting for Scale: Measuring Geography in Quantitative Studies of Civil War. Political Geography 24: 399-418


Other articles that use the data:

Lujala, Päivi 2009. Deadly Combat over Natural Resources: Gems, Petroleum, Drugs, and the Severity of Armed Civil Conflict. Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(1): 50-71.

Lujala, Päivi 2010. The Spoils of Nature: ’Armed Civil Conflict and Rebel Access to Natural Resources. Journal of Peace Research 47(1): 15-28.


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Contact address:, Updated: 1.10.2010